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Vacuum Furnace Technology column by Dan Herring, Metallography column by George Vander Voort, Vacuum Brazing column by Dan Kay, Vacuum Pump column by Howard Tring and other Educational Resources

Vertical vacuum furnaces combine fast cycle times and quenching speeds to provide better uniformity of large production parts with complex geometries and are ideal for processing large circular parts such as rings, stators or engine casings and long parts like shafts or rolls.

CLICK HERE  for Standard Furnaces Sizes

vacuum-furnace-v350The standard VAV Series Vertical, Bottom-loading, Vacuum Heat Treating and Brazing Furnace can be customized to suit unique applications such as high pressure gas quenching, high temperature heat treating, ultra-clean processing and more.

The furnace is designed to have fast heating rates to very uniform temperatures at high vacuum levels. Standard units are equipped with a gas quench system capable of cooling the load rapidly from processing temperatures at quench pressures up to two bar.

Advanced microprocessor controls are used exclusively to ensure precise control and repeatability. VAC AERO control systems can be integrated with internal networks and offer extensive data collection capabilities. VAC AERO also manufactures auxiliary equipment for quench gas storage and furnace cooling requirements.


VAC AERO Vacuum Gas Quench Furnace features and capabilities include:

  • Operating temperatures up to 2400°F (1315°C).
  • Ultimate vacuum levels in the 10-6 torr range.
  • Modular hot zone design for easy maintenance.
  • All-metal hot zones are available for ultra-high vacuum processing.
  • Alternatively, economical graphite-based insulation provides extended durability.
  • Heating elements available in lightweight curved graphite or molybdenum strip.
  • Selectable gas quench pressures from 2 bar to 10 bar.
  • Fully automated control systems including PC-based controls with remote access.
  • Optional convection heating capability.


TEMPERATURE UNIFORMITY: Meets or Exceeds AMS 2750 Requirements.


VAC AERO hot zones have unitized construction for easy removal and maintenance. Lightweight design with low thermal mass and inertia for faster quenching and long life.

  • Work Load Size: Standard sizes up to 84” diameter x 84" high. Larger models are also available.
  • Heating Elements: Customer’s choice of lightweight curved graphite, pure or lanthanated molybdenum strip.
  • Hearth: Constructed with quickly removable hearth rails of pure molybdenum designed to support uniformly distributed loads up to 4000 lbs at 2400°F.

    vert_hot_zone-3.gifRadiation Shields: (Graphite-based Construction):

    The standard graphite-based insulation package consists of three layers of carbon felt with a inner facing of graphite foil bonded carbon composite for added protection and enhanced reflectivity. The heat shield package is supported by a stainless steel assembly that also acts as a manifold to distribute the quenching gas uniformly throughout the workload.

    Radiation Shields (All-Metal Construction):

    For ultra-clean processing applications, VAC AERO also offers an all-metal hot zone construction. The standard all-metal insulation package consists of two layers of pure molybdenum sheet backed by three layers of stainless steel sheet. The heat shield package is supported by a stainless steel assembly that also acts as a manifold to distribute the quenching gas uniformly throughout the workload.


    The chamber and heads are a double-wall water-cooled design, primed and painted the customer's choice of colour. The chamber is equipped with all necessary thermocouple jacks, gauge ports, pumping ports and gas quench entries conveniently located for easy access. The tank assembly is vertically aligned with a bottom opening load head. The bottom head and the load are raised and lowered smoothly by a constant speed, ball screw driven lifting jack. Once lowered, the bottom head rolls out from beneath the furnace by means of a powered drive assembly to allow 360° access to the load. The tank is equipped with a powered rotary clamping system to secure the bottom head during processing. A "ground fault" system is used to detect if the load or fixtures touch the heating elements during loading or unloading and will stop the elevator to prevent damage.


    The vacuum pumpdown is automatic and interlocked. The VAC AERO design uses a holding pump to maintain a low pressure on the diffusion pump foreline at all times. This feature, combined with proper timed sequencing of vacuum valves, virtually eliminates backstreaming of pump oils.

    • Mechanical Pump: Roughing Pump and Booster combination appropriately sized for furnace volume.
    • Diffusion Pump: Varian series complete with charge of Dow Corning fluid.
    • Holding Pump: Rotary vane pump.
    • Main, Roughing and Foreline Valves: Right angle poppet valve with electropneumatic operation.
    • Partial Pressure Capabilities: The furnace can be operated at partial pressures up to 1 torr (1000 microns) of inert gas (argon or nitrogen, whichever is used for quenching). Failsafe hydrogen partial pressure systems are also available.


    VAC AERO’s IG Series Quench Gas Storage Systems are available as an option.

    External recirculating inert gas quenching system distributes quench gas through circumferentially located internal nozzles for rapid, uniform cooling of the work load. The system includes:

    • Quench blower powered by electric motor with soft start.
    • Special high efficiency tube/fin heat exchanger.
    • Complete quench piping.
    • Selectable operating pressure.

    vertical_hardwarealarms.gifPROCESS CONTROLS with SCADA:

    The VAC AERO control system is programmable and logic based. The design philosophy of VAC AERO is to simplify control by using the program capabilities to perform as many functions as possible, thereby reducing operator dependence. VAC AERO has also chosen proven hardware components, suitably hardened for an "industrial shop" environment. The system uses a state-of-the-art Hybrid controller to control the machine functions and furnace temperature. The controller integrates with software running on a personal computer to provide Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). Operator interface is provided though an LCD touch-screen mounted in a control panel. An extensive range of standard displays is available.

    The key benefits of this system are:

    • Compatible with plant wide SCADA and network integration.
    • Process cycle validation.
    • Extensive alarm and event management and reporting.
    • Temperature control using advanced algorithms, auto tuning, and multiple PID loops.
    • Operator sign-on/sign-off security provides up to 255 control levels to limit operator control of individual items of plant and equipment.
    • Enhanced maintenance and troubleshooting management and trending.

    Vacuum Instrumentation: A Vacuum Gauge Controller with 2 station, thermocouple gauge and 1 station Penning (cold cathode) gauge is used to monitor the chamber and the pumping system. This instrument is integrated with the process controller to provide dedicated setpoints that control all critical vacuum-related process functions.

    Overtemperature Safety Controller: Digital manual set 0°F - 3100°F, Type S.

    Power Supply: The heating element power is supplied by an A.C. water cooled power supply containing single phase VRT assemblies. Each VRT has a 0 – 100% trim control for optimum temperature uniformity in the hot zone.


    Furnace water system consists of a compact manifold containing all necessary pressure regulators, valves, pressure switches and flow regulators with supply and drain hoses and fittings. As an option, VAC AERO can provide a Dual Loop Cooling System to supply coolant to the furnace.


    The system is shipped complete, tested and ready for installation. VAC AERO offers installation supervision or complete installation services. After installation, a qualified VAC AERO technician will visit the site to commission the equipment and provide instruction in furnace operation. As part of every furnace contract, VAC AERO also provides pre-delivery training in heat treating processes furnace operation and maintenance.

    pdf_fileicon.gifDownload VAV Series Furnace Specs

    pdf_fileicon.gifDownload VAV series Auxiliary System Product Sheet


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    VAC AERO News, Education & Training

    vacuum-pump-seriesVAC AERO Launches a New Vacuum Pump Technology Column with Dan Herring in collaboration with Edwards Vacuum!

    Burlington, Ontario, August 17, 2015 - A new column, written by vacuum heat treating expert Dan Herring “The Heat Treat Doctor”® in collaboration with Edwards Vacuum will be published monthly and offer helpful tips and techniques on vacuum pumping systems to a worldwide audience of individuals using all types of vacuum equipment. The first article will appear in the September 15th “What’s Hot!”. This Vac-Aero exclusive publication launched back in September 2007 and contains hundreds of archived articles can now be found in the “Resources” section of the VAC AERO website where anyone can sign up for the monthly newsletter. Keeping pace with the development of new vacuum processing technologies is the reason VAC AERO takes pride in its continued support of the metal treating community by helping to promote, collaborate and assist others in their search for solutions on important issues in the practice and application of vacuum processing.

    Vacuum Technology with "The Heat Treat Doctor"

    Vapor-Pressure-Curves nlEvaporation

    When performing any type of vacuum heat treatment it is always important to be aware of the possibility of evaporation and/or sublimation of elements, which can be present in the material being processed, introduced into the vacuum system with the workload, inherent in the equipment design or introduced during maintenance, repair or rebuilds. In cases where evaporation may be a concern, the vaporization rate is of prime importance and is directly related to the furnace pressure (the higher the pressure, the more frequent the collision of gas molecules and correspondingly, the few metal atoms leave the metal's surface). What is Evaporation? Vaporization is the process that occurs when a chemical or element is converted from a liquid (or a solid) to a gas. When a liquid is converted to a gas, the process is called evaporation or boiling; when a solid is converted to a gas, the process is called sublimation.

    Vacuum Brazing with Dan Kay

    stainless-cog-nl321 Stainless Steel -- Is it a Good Choice for Brazing?

    Stainless steels are essentially iron-based alloys with at least 10.5% (or more) chromium added to it. There are many different types of stainless steels available to designers to consider, and austenitic stainless steels, which contain nickel as well as chromium, have been quite popular over the years for use in a wide range of brazement-designs due to their inherent corrosion resistance, brazeability, as well as the fact that they are often non-magnetic and do not need subsequent heat-treatment. These Fe/Ni/Cr alloys, designated as the 300-series of stainless steels, can be hardened by cold-working, but due to the temperatures involved in most brazing processes, are primarily used in the “annealed” (soft) condition in end-use service.

    Metallography with George Vander Voort

    dura-scan nlVery Low Loads in Micro-indentation Tests Must Be Avoided

    For many years, ASTM E384 has stated that test forces from 1 to 1000 gf can be used to determine the Vickers or Knoop micro-indentation hardness. But, is it realistic to consider using very low test forces when the indents are measured with a light optical microscope? ASTM E92 is being resurrected and changed to cover all test loads, micro- and macro-loads, from 1 gf to 120,000 gf. Most micro-indentation hardness testers manufactured over the last 50 years or more have provided the user with a 10X objective used to find the area of interest for testing and one measurement objective, 40X magnification being the most common. A few testers have offered 50X or 60X objectives to measure the indents. It is rare to find a tester with a multiple objective (and indenter) turret, such as the DuraScan system which has ports for 2 indenters and 4 objectives.

    Vacuum Pump Practice with Dan Herring

    edwards-pumps nl2What is the Purpose of a Vacuum Pump

    To successfully process component parts in a vacuum furnace, we need to create and control the “atmosphere” surrounding the work. In general, applications run in vacuum furnaces can be broken down into five main (5) categories: Processes that can be done in no other way than in vacuum; processes that can be done better in vacuum from a metallurgical standpoint; processes that can be done better in vacuum from an economic viewpoint; processes that can be done better in vacuum from a surface finish perspective and process that can be done better in vacuum from an environmental perspective. A principal difference between vacuum heat treatment and all other forms of thermal processing is the absence of, or perhaps better stated, the precise control of surface reactions.

    Front and Bottom Loading Vacuum Furnaces

    vacuum-furnace-3448Constructed of the finest materials and craftsmanship, VAC AERO’s high performance vacuum furnaces are operator friendly and designed to minimize maintenance and downtime to deliver outstanding quality and  value to commercial and in-house heat treaters alike. VAC AERO’s vacuum furnaces are designed for rapid heating rates to very uniform temperatures at high vacuum levels and can be customized to suit unique applications such as high pressure gas quenching, high temperature heat treating, ultra-clean processing and more. VAC AERO’s high efficiency hot zones are designed for easy maintenance and reduced energy consumption. Our external quench system allows for easy maintenance of the heat exchanger and quench motor. A high efficiency blower and motor combine fast cycle times and quenching speeds to provide uniform gas distribution and superior cooling performance from processing temperatures at pressures of up to 10 bar.