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Vacuum Furnace Systems, controls and Manufacturing
Vacuum Brazing and Vacuum Heat Treating Services
Thermal Spray Coating services, Plasma and High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF) Spray Coatings and Inorganic Paint and Pack Coatings
Vacuum Furnace Technology column by Dan Herring, Metallography column by George Vander Voort, Vacuum Brazing column by Dan Kay, Vacuum Pump column by Howard Tring and other Educational Resources

Vertical vacuum furnaces combine fast cycle times and quenching speeds to provide better uniformity of large production parts with complex geometries and are ideal for processing large circular parts such as rings, stators or engine casings and long parts like shafts or rolls.

CLICK HERE  for Standard Furnaces Sizes

vacuum-furnace-v350The standard VAV Series Vertical, Bottom-loading, Vacuum Heat Treating and Brazing Furnace can be customized to suit unique applications such as high pressure gas quenching, high temperature heat treating, ultra-clean processing and more.

The furnace is designed to have fast heating rates to very uniform temperatures at high vacuum levels. Standard units are equipped with a gas quench system capable of cooling the load rapidly from processing temperatures at quench pressures up to two bar.

Advanced microprocessor controls are used exclusively to ensure precise control and repeatability. VAC AERO control systems can be integrated with internal networks and offer extensive data collection capabilities. VAC AERO also manufactures auxiliary equipment for quench gas storage and furnace cooling requirements.

CLICK HERE TO VIEW ACTUAL VACUUM FURNACE PRODUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

VAC AERO Vacuum Gas Quench Furnace features and capabilities include:

  • Operating temperatures up to 2400°F (1315°C).
  • Ultimate vacuum levels in the 10-6 torr range.
  • Modular hot zone design for easy maintenance.
  • All-metal hot zones are available for ultra-high vacuum processing.
  • Alternatively, economical graphite-based insulation provides extended durability.
  • Heating elements available in lightweight curved graphite or molybdenum strip.
  • Selectable gas quench pressures from 2 bar to 10 bar.
  • Fully automated control systems including PC-based controls with remote access.
  • Optional convection heating capability.

STANDARD OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE: 1000°F - 2400°F (538°C - 1315°C)

TEMPERATURE UNIFORMITY: Meets or Exceeds AMS 2750 Requirements.


HOT ZONE:

VAC AERO hot zones have unitized construction for easy removal and maintenance. Lightweight design with low thermal mass and inertia for faster quenching and long life.

  • Work Load Size: Standard sizes up to 84” diameter x 84" high. Larger models are also available.
  • Heating Elements: Customer’s choice of lightweight curved graphite, pure or lanthanated molybdenum strip.
  • Hearth: Constructed with quickly removable hearth rails of pure molybdenum designed to support uniformly distributed loads up to 4000 lbs at 2400°F.

    vert_hot_zone-3.gifRadiation Shields: (Graphite-based Construction):

    The standard graphite-based insulation package consists of three layers of carbon felt with a inner facing of graphite foil bonded carbon composite for added protection and enhanced reflectivity. The heat shield package is supported by a stainless steel assembly that also acts as a manifold to distribute the quenching gas uniformly throughout the workload.

    Radiation Shields (All-Metal Construction):

    For ultra-clean processing applications, VAC AERO also offers an all-metal hot zone construction. The standard all-metal insulation package consists of two layers of pure molybdenum sheet backed by three layers of stainless steel sheet. The heat shield package is supported by a stainless steel assembly that also acts as a manifold to distribute the quenching gas uniformly throughout the workload.

    FURNACE CHAMBER:

    The chamber and heads are a double-wall water-cooled design, primed and painted the customer's choice of colour. The chamber is equipped with all necessary thermocouple jacks, gauge ports, pumping ports and gas quench entries conveniently located for easy access. The tank assembly is vertically aligned with a bottom opening load head. The bottom head and the load are raised and lowered smoothly by a constant speed, ball screw driven lifting jack. Once lowered, the bottom head rolls out from beneath the furnace by means of a powered drive assembly to allow 360° access to the load. The tank is equipped with a powered rotary clamping system to secure the bottom head during processing. A "ground fault" system is used to detect if the load or fixtures touch the heating elements during loading or unloading and will stop the elevator to prevent damage.

    VACUUM PUMPING SYSTEM:

    The vacuum pumpdown is automatic and interlocked. The VAC AERO design uses a holding pump to maintain a low pressure on the diffusion pump foreline at all times. This feature, combined with proper timed sequencing of vacuum valves, virtually eliminates backstreaming of pump oils.

    • Mechanical Pump: Roughing Pump and Booster combination appropriately sized for furnace volume.
    • Diffusion Pump: Varian series complete with charge of Dow Corning fluid.
    • Holding Pump: Rotary vane pump.
    • Main, Roughing and Foreline Valves: Right angle poppet valve with electropneumatic operation.
    • Partial Pressure Capabilities: The furnace can be operated at partial pressures up to 1 torr (1000 microns) of inert gas (argon or nitrogen, whichever is used for quenching). Failsafe hydrogen partial pressure systems are also available.

    GAS QUENCH SYSTEM:

    VAC AERO’s IG Series Quench Gas Storage Systems are available as an option.

    External recirculating inert gas quenching system distributes quench gas through circumferentially located internal nozzles for rapid, uniform cooling of the work load. The system includes:

    • Quench blower powered by electric motor with soft start.
    • Special high efficiency tube/fin heat exchanger.
    • Complete quench piping.
    • Selectable operating pressure.

    vertical_hardwarealarms.gifPROCESS CONTROLS with SCADA:

    The VAC AERO control system is programmable and logic based. The design philosophy of VAC AERO is to simplify control by using the program capabilities to perform as many functions as possible, thereby reducing operator dependence. VAC AERO has also chosen proven hardware components, suitably hardened for an "industrial shop" environment. The system uses a state-of-the-art Hybrid controller to control the machine functions and furnace temperature. The controller integrates with software running on a personal computer to provide Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). Operator interface is provided though an LCD touch-screen mounted in a control panel. An extensive range of standard displays is available.

    The key benefits of this system are:

    • Compatible with plant wide SCADA and network integration.
    • Process cycle validation.
    • Extensive alarm and event management and reporting.
    • Temperature control using advanced algorithms, auto tuning, and multiple PID loops.
    • Operator sign-on/sign-off security provides up to 255 control levels to limit operator control of individual items of plant and equipment.
    • Enhanced maintenance and troubleshooting management and trending.

    Vacuum Instrumentation: A Vacuum Gauge Controller with 2 station, thermocouple gauge and 1 station Penning (cold cathode) gauge is used to monitor the chamber and the pumping system. This instrument is integrated with the process controller to provide dedicated setpoints that control all critical vacuum-related process functions.

    Overtemperature Safety Controller: Digital manual set 0°F - 3100°F, Type S.

    Power Supply: The heating element power is supplied by an A.C. water cooled power supply containing single phase VRT assemblies. Each VRT has a 0 – 100% trim control for optimum temperature uniformity in the hot zone.

    FURNACE COOLING SYSTEM:

    Furnace water system consists of a compact manifold containing all necessary pressure regulators, valves, pressure switches and flow regulators with supply and drain hoses and fittings. As an option, VAC AERO can provide a Dual Loop Cooling System to supply coolant to the furnace.

    INSTALLATION AND START UP ASSISTANCE

    The system is shipped complete, tested and ready for installation. VAC AERO offers installation supervision or complete installation services. After installation, a qualified VAC AERO technician will visit the site to commission the equipment and provide instruction in furnace operation. As part of every furnace contract, VAC AERO also provides pre-delivery training in heat treating processes furnace operation and maintenance.

    pdf_fileicon.gifDownload VAV Series Furnace Specs

    pdf_fileicon.gifDownload VAV series Auxiliary System Product Sheet

     

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    VAC AERO News, Education & Training

    dan kay seminarKay & Associates Brazing Seminars

    Since brazing plays an important part in your company’s products, plan to have your staff attend one of the high-powered, three-day seminars being held in 2016. Our Brazing Seminars cover all the essentials for successful brazing of commercial and aerospace components. The improvements to brazing operations that have resulted from these seminars have paid for the cost of the seminar many times over at many companies! Register your staff today! They WILL truly benefit from having attended this program!

    Next Seminar Date and Location: October 11-13, 2016 - Spartanburg, South Carolina

    To Register on the Kay & Associates' Website CLICK HERE.

     

    Vacuum Technology with "The Heat Treat Doctor"

    Fig 6 nlThe Fundamentals of Vacuum Theory – Part 2

    Last time we talked about the Kinetic Theory of Gases and how it can be used to calculate gas properties. We also considered the relationship between molecular density, mean free path, molecular velocity and pressure. Now we turn our attention to a discussion about temperature and kinetic energy, pressure and kinetic energy, and types of flow in vacuum systems. Again, we will focus on the basics, using fundamental comparisons to explain the concepts significant to industrial vacuum systems. Relevance of Temperature to the Kinetic Theory of Gases: Based on an atomic understanding of the world we live in, the Kinetic Theory reveals that gas properties are highly dependent on the speed of their molecules, which determines their kinetic energy, and therefore the gas pressure. When considering the effects of the Kinetic Theory, it is also important to understand the influence of temperature. Specifically, the speed of the molecules in a gas is dependent on its temperature (the higher the temperature the faster the gas molecules move). Another way to think of it is that the temperature of a gas is a measure of the average kinetic energy of that gas.

    Vacuum Brazing with Dan Kay

    Fig 1 nlEssential Criteria for Brazing: Item 1 — Proper Design for Brazing

    Over the almost 45-years of my brazing career I have discovered that there are a number of fundamental principles that must be understood and followed if successful brazing is to occur. Over the next few months we will look at each of these principles in more detail, but I will merely introduce them to the reader here. Brazing is a wonderful joining process, and also a forgiving process. By this I mean that even when you do not follow all the brazing principles exactly, brazing can work pretty well for you, but within limits. Gross disregard for some of these principles will, in fact, lead to failure of parts in the field (or in your brazing shop before parts are to be shipped to your customers) and are responsible for most of the problems people face with poor-quality brazed joints. By comparison, when people understand these principles, practice them well in their shops, they usually find that there are very few, if any, problems with their brazing operations and, as a result, their customers are quite satisfied with the brazed products shipped to them.

    Metallography with George Vander Voort

    vacuum furnaceGrain Size Measurement: The Heyn Intercept Method

    When ASTM standard E 2 was published in 1917, ASTM Committee E-4 on Metallography’s first standard, it described the planimetric method for measuring grain size based upon publications by Zay Jeffries, a founding member of E4; but, E 2 only briefly mentioned the intercept method developed in Germany in an appendix at the end of the standard. The intercept method suggested by Heyn in 1903 [1] is considerably faster to perform manually which has made it popular, despite the fact that there is no direct mathematical connection between the mean lineal intercept length and G. Both straight lines and circles have been used as templates, plus other shapes. The Heyn Intercept Method - Modified by Abrams: In the 1974 revision of E 112 by Halle Abrams, he introduced the three-concentric circle test grid and a more formal methodology for performing intercept grain size measurements.

    Vacuum Pump Practice with Dan Herring

    vacuum heat treat furnacesPumps for High and Ultra-High Vacuum - Part One

    Most of us are familiar with processing in the vacuum range up to around 1.33 x 10-3 Pa or slightly lower. There are also lessons to be learned from understanding the demands of ultra-high vacuum applications. Let’s explore what’s involved. What is an Ultra-High Vacuum? Practical high vacuum levels range down to approximately 1.33 x 10-4 Pa while ultra-high vacuum (UHV) levels are in the vacuum range characterized by pressures of about 10-7 Pa and greater. These vacuum levels demand the use of special materials of construction and processing techniques such as preheating of the entire system for several hours prior to processing to remove water and other trace gases, which adsorb on the surfaces of the chamber. At these low pressures the mean free path of a gas molecule is approximately 40 km, so gas molecules will collide with the chamber walls more frequently than they collide with each other. Thus, almost all gas interactions therefore take place on various surfaces in the chamber.

    Front and Bottom Loading Vacuum Furnaces

    vacuum heat treating furnacesConstructed of the finest materials and craftsmanship, VAC AERO’s high performance vacuum heat treating furnaces are operator friendly and designed to minimize maintenance and downtime to deliver outstanding quality and  value to commercial and in-house heat treaters alike. VAC AERO’s vacuum furnaces are designed for rapid heating rates to very uniform temperatures at high vacuum levels and can be customized to suit unique applications such as high pressure gas quenching, high temperature heat treating, ultra-clean processing and more. VAC AERO’s high efficiency hot zones are designed for easy maintenance and reduced energy consumption and an external quench system allows for easy maintenance of the heat exchanger and quench motor. A high efficiency blower and motor combine fast cycle times and quenching speeds to provide uniform gas distribution and superior cooling performance from processing temperatures at pressures of up to 10 bar.

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