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A penetrating electromagnetic radiation, usually generated by accelerating electrons to high velocity and suddenly stopping them by collision with a solid body. Wavelengths of x-rays range from about 10-1 to 10-2 , the average wavelength used in research being about 1. Also known as roentgen ray or x-radiation. See also electromagnetic radiation.
x-ray diffraction (XRD)
An analytical technique in which measurements are made of the angles at which x-rays are preferentially scattered from a sample (as well as of the intensities scattered at various angles) in order to deduce information on the crystalline nature of the sample–its crystal structure, orientations, and so on.
Emission by a substance of its characteristic x-ray line spectrum on exposure to x-rays.
An intensity map (usually corresponding to an image) in which the intensity in any area is proportional to the concentration of a specific element in that area.
x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
An analytical technique that measures the energy spectra of electrons emitted from the surface of a material when exposed to monochromatic x-rays.
Measurement of wavelengths of x-rays by observing their diffraction by crystals of known lattice spacing.
The plot of the intensity or number of x-ray photons versus energy (or wavelength).
A technique that comprises topography and x-ray diffraction. The term topography refers to a detailed description and mapping of physical (surface) features in a region. In the context of the x-ray diffraction, topographic methods are used to survey the lattice structure and imperfections in crystalline materials.